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中国商学院的国际竞争力亟待提升

2012年12月03日10:00
来源:搜狐商学院 作者:MBA中国网

  由世界经理人集团和《世界企业家》杂志联合编制的2012年“世界最具影响力MBA100强”排行榜于9月27日在香港揭晓,哈佛商学 院、沃顿商学院和斯坦福商学院排名前三。主办方已经连续10年对世界和中国的MBA教育进行测评,今年中国共有10所商学院入选,比去年多了4所, 其中大陆有6所入榜,而香港和台湾各有3所和1所进入百强。引人注目的是,在前10名商学院中,有9所来自美国,另外1所来自英国的伦敦商学院。

  《世界企业家》杂志总编辑丁海森说,“世界MBA100强中,共有20个国家的商学院上榜,其中美国高达51所商学院入选,排名第一;英国有 14所入选,排名第二;中国两岸三地有10所入选,排名第三。因为汉语的国际化程度不如英语,中国商学院的老师又很少能用英文教学,因此目前只有10%的 中国商学院能够规模化吸收外国留学生。目前中国MBA毕业生在国际市场上并没有竞争力,很少毕业后直接赴西方发达国家工作,从而使得中国MBA毕业生的年 薪只是世界一流MBA的15%左右”。

  针对中国商学院自身品牌国际化水平亟待提高的问题,专程出席香港会议的哈佛大学商学院资深教授约翰.戴腾 (John Deighton)认为,“商学院品牌在某些特殊含义上,往往与企业存在着差异。所谓商学院的特殊含义有两点:一是对学生的承诺,确保学生将得到的教育是 物有所值的;二是对雇主的保证,确保雇佣他们的毕业生能为企业创造佳绩。要想让中国商学院成为世界品牌,你必须能够吸引中国以外国家和地区的企业主来招募 你的毕业生到世界各地去工作。你还必须能够吸引那些想在中国发展事业的国际学生。还有,聘请一些在其他国家有一定声誉的著名教授也是必要”。

  以下是《世界企业家》总编辑丁海森与哈佛商学院教授约翰.戴腾博士对话实录:

  (注:Ding即丁海森总编辑,Deighton即戴腾教授)

  Ding: The teaching method and curriculums of business schools in the world seem no significant change even we have gone into the information society from the industrial society during the recent 100 years, what aspects do you think should the reform on business schools own start with?

  丁海森:近100年的时间里我们从工业社会进入信息社会,但全球商学院的教学方法和课程设置上并没有显著的改变,您认为商学院自身应从哪些方面进行改革?

  Deighton:Curricula have not changed since the start of the Information Age? Speaking for the Harvard Business School, I disagree. Let’s say that the Information Age began around 1994 with the launch of the Mosaic browser that let people use the World Wide Web. Almost immediately Professor Jeffrey Rayport launched his course, “Managing in the Marketspace,” which soon became the most popular course in Harvard’s elective curriculum. Until the collapse of the dot com bubble in 2001, students flocked to course that would teach them Internet marketing, technology, and entrepreneurship.

  戴腾:自从进入信息时代后课程设置上就没有改变过吗?如以哈佛商学院为例,我不同意这一说法。约1994年,Mosaic浏览器的出现使全球人 民进入使用万维网的信息时代,几乎在同一时间,杰弗里.雷波特(Jeffrey Rayport)教授推出他的新课程——“市场空间的管理”(Managing in the Marketspace),这门课很快成为哈佛的热门选修课。直到2001年互联网泡沫破裂之前,学生都还在争前恐后地去学习互联网营销、科技和企业家精 神的课程。

  It is true that when the bubble collapsed, many of these courses were quietly closed down for a few years. But as soon as the Internet economy picked up again, market demand drove professors to design courses. Today we have such courses as:

  互联网泡沫破灭后,这些课程确实关闭了几年时间。但随着互联网经济的回升,由于市场的需求推动教授们又重新开始设计相关课程。现在,我们开设以下这些课程:

  The Online Economy: Strategy and Entrepreneurship

  网络经济:战略和创业

  Power and Glory in Turbulent Times: The History of Leadership from Henry V to Mark Zuckerberg

  动荡年代的权利和荣耀:从亨利五世到马克.扎克伯格的历史

  Digital Marketing Strategy

  数字营销策略

  Launching Technology Ventures

  建立科技风险投资公司

  Founders Dilemmas

  创业者的困境

  Introduction to Innovation & Entrepreneurship

  创新与创业入门

  Competing with Social Networks

  与社交网络竞争

  Strategy and Technology

  战略与技术

  Distributed Innovation Systems and Open Source Software

  分布式创新系统与开源软件

  These courses directly teach topics that are relevant to the Information Age. Many other courses use case studies that allow students to debate about and learn from successful Internet businesses alongside non-Internet firms. If a course is titled Entrepreneurial Finance, for example, it inevitably studies online as well as offline business.

  这些课程直接传授与信息时代有关的课题,许多其他的课程运用案例分析,使学生在课堂上讨论学习互联网企业与非互联网企业成功的同异。如果一门课程叫做企业财务,那它不可避免地需要研究线上与线下两方的业务。

  What does it take to ensure that all business schools teach about the Information Age economy? The answer, I believe, is to have all business schools teach by means of case studies first, and lectures second. When professors have an incentive to find and investigate contemporary business stories and bring them into the classroom, they have no choice but to stay up to date.

  如何能保证所有商学院提供信息时代经济的教学?我认为答案是让所有的商学院首先用案例学习的方式教学,然后才是授课式教学。当教授有意识去发现和研究当代商业故事并带入课堂,这样他们别无选择,只能不断更新自己的知识面。

  A professor who teaches by lecturing has a strong incentive to deliver the same lectures every year. The attitude develops among the professors and the students that the professor is the expert and the students must sit quietly and learn. A professor who teaches by leading discussion of contemporary business cases has a strong incentive to change the cases regularly as the world changes. The attitude develops that the professor and the students learn together. The professor may be wiser, but the students have more facts. The combination is better than wisdom or facts alone.

  用授课式教学的教授很可能每年的授课内容保持不变。这种方式发展成为教授是专家而学生必须静静坐着学习。而用当代商业案例引起讨论的方式 授课的教授更有可能根据时事变化而经常改变案例。这种方式让学生和教授一同学习进步。教授或许更明智,而学生更贴近现实,这2种组合合力的效果更佳。

  The Information Age is introducing one new opportunity, and that is online education. Some schools, such as MIT, make all their lectures available for free to anyone with a computer. I don’t think this is exactly the future of education, because, a should be clear, I don’t think lectures are the right way to study the dynamic field of emerging business principles. But if it is good to run cases with students in a classroom, perhaps it is good to run cases with students all over the world in online forums. The process is not yet as effective as class discussion, but the learning has only just begun.

  信息时代引入了一个新的趋势,那就是网上教育。有些学校,如麻省理工学院,他们的所有教学课程都可以免费用电脑获取。我不认为这就是教育的未 来,因为,很显然,我不认为授课式教学是正确的方式来学习新兴商业理论的动态领域。但是,如果能在课堂上能让学生顺畅的进行案例教学,也许在全世界网络论 坛上实行案例教学也是比较好的选择。这个方式还没能达到课堂讨论的效果,但是这种学习才刚刚开始。

  Ding: What differences and similarities does brand building have between business schools own and normal enterprises?

  丁海森:商学院和普通企业的品牌建设有什么区别和相似之处?

  Deighton:A brand is just a word around which meanings accumulate. If those meanings are good, and in particular if they connote trust and prestige, then the brand stands for something valuable. But it is vital to remember that it is the thing itself, not the brand, which has value. If the Stanford Graduate School of Business sold its name to a low quality university, very soon the meanings that began to accumulate around the name would be different from those that exist today. The university that bought the name would quickly find it had bought nothing, or at least nothing of permanent value.

  戴腾:品牌这个词主要围绕着含义积累。如果那些含义不错,特别是如果它们意味着信任和威信,那么这个品牌代表了一些有价值的东西。但是记住,这 是事物本身的价值,而不是品牌的。如果斯坦福商学院出售给低教学质量的大学,它的名字很快将开始积累与以前不同的新含义。买了斯坦福名称的大学,将很快意 识到他们什么也没买到,或至少没买到永久价值。

  In that respect a business school brand is just like a brand on a normal enterprise. It is only as good as the quality of what it refers to. The particular meanings, however are often different.

  商学院的品牌就如同一般意义上的企业品牌,也要通过提供足够优质的产品和服务,而得到尊重。但商学院在某些特殊含义上,往往与企业存在着差异。

  The particular meanings of business schools are of two kinds: a promise to students that they will get a good education, and an assurance to employers that they are hiring a graduate who will perform well. Of course each meaning depends on the other: good education is necessary for good work performance, and demand by employers for graduates creates demand by students to become graduates. So Business schools are two-sided platforms. To be successful both sides of the platform – students and employers - must value the platform. The platform must have a strong brand in the minds of both sides.

  所谓商学院的特殊含义有两点:一是对学生的承诺,确保学生将得到的教育是物有所值的;二是对雇主的保证,确保雇佣他们的毕业生能为企业创造佳 绩。当然,要做到以上两点需要依靠其他方面的支持,比如:优秀的教学品质是能够帮助毕业生胜任工作,并能够帮助企业找到可用之才的必要条件。所以说,商学 院是一个双向平台,要想取得成功,平台的双方——学生和雇主——都必须足够强大,才能创造出强有力的品牌。

  Ding: The main teaching language is Chinese in China, How do Chinese business schools build global brands?

  丁海森:中国商学院的教学以中文为主,在这种情况下,如何将中国的商学院发展成为全球品牌?

  Deighton:To have a global brand as a business school you must attract employers from non-China companies who want to recruit students to work for them throughout the world. You must also attract students from beyond China who want to work in China for part of their careers. You must also produce graduates who go out into the world and spread your good name. You must have professors on your faculty who publish and build reputations in other countries. To do all of these things, instruction in the English language in at least some courses is a good idea.

  戴腾:要想让商学院成为世界品牌,你必须能够吸引中国以外国家和地区的企业主来招募你的毕业生到世界各地去工作。你还必须能够吸引那些想在中国 发展事业的国际学生。此外,你还需要你的毕业生走向世界,把学校的名字广为传播出去。还有,聘请一些在其他国家有一定声誉的著名教授也是必要。当然,在某 些课程设置上,运用英语教学也是个不错的主意。

  The necessity of English-language instruction is a problem that many European business schools faced years ago. INSEAD, a business school located in France, solved it by making English the language of instruction, which was not popular with French authorities, but INSEAD was not part of a university with the power to stop it. The strategy worked, and INSEAD is today one of the top business schools I the world. CEIBS, a business school located in Shanghai, used the same solution, and may eventually be successful. Other business schools, such as IESE in Spain, offer courses in both English and Spanish. It is an unfortunate fact that business schools that instruct only in the language of their country, such as some of the very fine schools in the universities of Germany, Italy, and Portugal, do not have global brands.

  对于是否有必要进行英语教学的问题,许多欧洲商学院在几年前就已经面对了同样的问题。法国的欧洲工商管理学院(INSEAD)解决了这个问题。 英语在法国并不流行,但它把部分课程设成了英语。这个策略很有成效,它令INSEAD成为了当今世界顶级商学院。上海的中欧国际工商学院(CEIBS)也 延用了这一策略,并可能最终获得成功。其他一些商学院,如:西班牙的IESE商学院,也提供双语教学(西班牙语和英语)。不幸的是,一些很优秀的,位于德 国、意大利和葡萄牙的商学院,因为只用本国语言教学,而不能确立全球品牌地位。

  The first step for Chinese business schools to become better known globally is through research. If they invest in translation services, then their scholars can publish in the premier journals of the business disciplines. Already Peking University in Beijing has begun to make its scholar known globally through their admired publications.

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